Mechanobiology is an emerging field of science at the interface of biology and engineering. It focuses on the way that physical forces and changes in cell or tissue mechanics contribute to development, physiology, and disease. A major challenge in the field is understanding mechanotransduction--the molecular mechanism by which cells sense and respond to mechanical signals.
While medicine has typically looked for the genetic basis of disease, advances in mechanobiology suggest that changes in cell mechanics, extracellular matrix structure, or mechanotransduction may contribute to the development of many diseases, including atherosclerosis, asthma, osteoporosis, heart failure, and cancer. There is also a strong mechanical basis for many generalized medical disabilities, such as lower back pain and irritable bowel syndrome.
For further reading please see the whole mechanobiology article in wikipedia.